Software Publishers Association Europe

SPA Europe is committed to keeping its members up to date on the latest public policy events and modifications.
It’s not always easy to keep abreast of the latest EU guidelines, so SPA Europe has taken the confusion out of Brussels “legalese” for you, and created the Public Policy Updates. #6 just came out: SPA Europe members Friday, January 23rd in Brussels with top European Union officials to discuss the new Digital Copyright Initiative recently proposed by D.G. XV. Data Privacy Directive: SPA Europe will work with the European Commission and other organizations on ways to reduce your cost of compliance.

In this section you will find several on-line publications, as well as a Model Software License Agreement to help you create or enhance your own.

Among the various forms of e-business, Electronic Software Distribution, or ESD, is becoming more and more prominent on the Internet, but how is the game being played?

This section will introduce you to SPA Europe’s ESD Focus Group. With the already established US guidelines in hand, the ESD Focus Group is working to establish and implement similar European and international guidelines.

SPA Europe publishes a newsletter on fraud issues in e-commerce. Check it out for important developments and information!

The 9th SPA Europe Annual Conference will be held in Cannes, June 11-13.

More details will follow, but be sure to mark your calendars for Europe’s most important and comprehensive software industry event.

Interested in being an exhibitor or in advertising in the official brochures? What better way to reach your most important audience than to reach the top industry executives all at once!

Early Pregnancy Tests – Do they always give accurate results?

If we go back a few years in time, let’s make that decades, women had no option but to wait for a missed period to test for pregnancy.  A missed period was considered the first indication of pregnancy. However, today with the advancement medical sciences testing for pregnancy is not so much a nerve racking process. Early pregnancy tests allow early detection of pregnancy with the added bonus of testing in the privacy of your own home.

Early pregnancy tests are truly advantageous. However, there is a big question on their accuracy. Women often ask if they could rely on home pregnancy test results as there have been numerous instances of false positives and negatives.

Home pregnancy tests that claim to detect early pregnancies are 98%- 99% accurate when conducted according to manufacturer’s instructions. In addition to this, there are several other factors that decide whether an early pregnancy test will be accurate or not. We shall cover these factors in the article below.

What are they and how do they work?

An early pregnancy test is a testing device that resembles a pen. It contains a dipstick, the tip of which is immersed in the urine sample (either collected or a stream of urine) when testing. The chemicals present in the absorbent strip reacts with the urine and display color changes to indicate the presence or absence of the pregnancy hormone called Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. If you use the regular pregnancy test kit, a plus sign or two pink lines and for a positive result while a minus sign or one pink line stands for a negative result. Go to faint pink positive pregnancy test for more details. On the other hand, if you work with a digital pregnancy test, the words “Pregnant” or “Yes” stand for a positive result while “Not Pregnant” or “No” implies a negative result.

Why do Tests go wrong?

We mentioned above and we mention it again that, early pregnancy tests are not 100% accurate. The cause for this is not a technical or design fault. It has to do with the levels of HCG in a woman’s system.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropinis produced and released by the placenta shortly after implantation of the embryo has occurred. Implantation can occur anytime between 6-12 days of ovulation. The initial stages of pregnancy are characterized by low levels of the pregnancy hormone. It increases rapidly as the pregnancy progresses.

There are several brands of early pregnancy tests that claim to detect pregnancy within very few days of ovulation. Some assert that they can accurately detect pregnancy before you miss a period, on the day of the period and there are also those that ask you to wait for one week after you have missed a period to test. It depends upon the sensitivity of the test. Sensitivity levels refer to the level of HCG it can detect in urine. Highly sensitive tests can detect as low as 20mIUs while those with low sensitivity require HCG in between 50mIUs and 100mIUs. The former are able to detect pregnancy accurately even before you miss a period. However, if you use the low sensitivity pregnancy kits at the same time duration it will give you inaccurate results.

When speaking about early pregnancy tests, we often take into consideration only one perspective that is the urine tests. Pregnancy can also be detected using blood tests. In fact, blood tests are more sensitive and are capable of detecting very low levels of HCG hormone. One can also expect to get accurate results after 7 days of ovulation when using a blood test. This is because HCG is released into the blood stream earlier and in larger quantities. The only drawback is it has to be performed in a doctor’s office.

Green Tea Extract

The green tea extract is taken from the Camellia sinensis plant leaves. Unlike any other kind of tea, the green tree extract goes along a very nominal process as it is manufactured. In fact, green tea is well known in several countries whether in the form of an iced tea drink, brewed, or steamed beverage. Furthermore, the original manufacturers of green tea are none other than China and Japan.

Nonetheless, it appears to be a fine brown yellow powder that bears some distinct aroma when poured in ethanol and water. The green tea extracts are the catechins and polyphenols.


Catechins contain a high level of biochemical activity. They also take the name of tannins or polyphenols. It likewise bears an important anti-oxidant property known as the epigallocatechin gallate or EGCg. This chemical is much more significant than the Vitamins E or C.

The Good

Because of its anti-oxidant property, green tea extract has a lot other uses. It speeds up the metabolism process therefore burns fat faster. It controls the absorption of body sugar and fights off the food poisoning bacteria that can harm the health. Several kinds of cancer can also be prevented. As you would be happier to note, these extracts are also skin friendly. It retains the glow of the skin as it puts off the possibility of wrinkle formation as brought about by the ultra-violet rays. Bad breath is also minimized since green tea kills the bacteria in the mouth.

Overall, the green tea extract has a lot to offer. Its intake is nevertheless good for the health.

Immediate intentional and appropriate

To be immediate, intentional and appropriate in all areas of my life.
To merge my passions, wealth, work and friendships into a seamless/streaming enterprise.
To be conscious
To, “work”, all the time, toward building emotional, relational and material wealth.

Writing down this as something you want is a great start. I am sending you some positive thoughts your way.

I’d also like to suggest you try and break this down into smaller bits. Doesn’t have to be very detailed, just maybe think of one thing each day that you are going to do that is in harmony with this intention. Could be something that takes as little as 2 minutes of your time, it really doesn’t matter.

The important thing is taking the time to think of an action you are going to take to move toward your goal and then actually doing it.

When Dads Fall Ill

I’ve written before about when a kid gets ill, how it’s kind of sweet and touching and how though I feel sorry for the kid, it’s touching to see them vulnerable and it’s kind of a good feeling to be able to take care of them.

But what happens when yours truly, aka Mack Daddy, aka moi, aka me, drifts into “the arena of the unwell” (Withnail and I: “Even a stopped clock tells the right time twice a day, and for once I am inclined to agree with Withnail: we have indeed drifted into the arena of the unwell.”)? What happens then?

Who will take care of me?

No one, turns out. I’d have to hire a professional nurse and I wouldn’t even know how to do that.

Last week, one day, I had some sort of sinus infection, my face became swollen and weird. I looked like The Elephant Man and felt like a cat run-over.

Ms. Daddy was at work. My part-time “caregiver” on vacation. Mack’s mother at a family reunion.

I picked up the boys at school.

“Boys, your dad feels like crap. Let’s just go straight home.”

“Can we go to the bakery first?”

“Seriously, kids: I gotta lie down.”

“I wanna play tag.”

“Kids: I don’t feel well.”

“Can X, Y, and Z come over?”

Too weak to protest, plus when they have friends over it’s actually easier to look after them because they’re entertained: “Sure.”

Six young men in the house, Mack Daddy lying in bed in boxers, puffy eyed and feeling sorry for self, tells kids insofar as possible to leave him alone.

But the stream of requests and demands is never-ending, ever-flowing.

“Dad, what’s for an after-school snack?”

“I’m thirsty, can I have some juice?”

“X, Y, and Z are staying for dinner. Can we have pizza?”

(Sure.) Later, X, Y, and Z’s parents hammering on the door, to pick up their kids. The dog barking, Mack Daddy in his boxers bawling down the stairs: “Kids, can someone other than me answer the door, please?”

“Oh, sure, Dad.”

They just ignore the pounding and hammering and frantic barking, figure I’ll get it.

Later, kicking open the door where I’m lying in the crepuscular semi-darkness. “Dad, what’s for dessert?”

Sometimes the Daddy just wants to say “uncle.” But to whom?

By the time Ms. Daddy got home, she was the recipient of Mack’s unfortunately unfairly crabby mood (“Can someone other than me walk the dog, please?”) and was righteously indignant.

Ms. Daddy was on the side of righteousness and the light, as usual; Mack wound up having to apologize, as usual.

When Mack got married, he vowed to “set aside childish things.” Maybe the desire to be taken care of when one falls ill is one them. Shot in the leg? Arrow through the arm? Just a flesh wound. Back on your feet, Mack!

“Wow, that looks like it hurts, Dad. What’s for dessert?”

Is Pneumonia Contagious after Antibiotics Usage

For knowing ‘is the condition contagious after using antibiotics’, you need to understand the various types of pneumonia conditions. The types vary according to the causing factors which lead to this situation and you would notice a different set of signs of pneumonia when the infection is caused by virus than bacteria. Also, the treatments vary on the basis of the type of infection and that is the reason why you cannot answer the above question easily. The question on pneumonia contagious is mainly decided by the type of infection that exists and therefore, you cannot be sure about the effects of the antibiotics on the current situation.

Impact of Antibiotics on Pneumonia

Even though the antibiotics can control the situation easily, there is still a chance of pneumonia being contagious after the proper intake of antibiotics. Antibiotics are known to be effective in such conditions which have been caused by bacteria and therefore, you cannot be sure about the response to this question. You also need to know that antibiotics can only contain the growth of bacteria and might lead to a complete cure in some cases but that does not promise to take care of its contagious nature in the early stages of treatment.

Is Walking Pneumonia Contagious

This one is another type of pneumonia which might exist in patients and generally, it is considered to be completely dormant. Usually, it is considered to be a milder version and is generally regarded as the one where the symptoms are present but the impact is only moderate. Even though you might be able to go through your life without much hassle, it is always advisable to get this sort of pneumonia treated. The answer is definitely a yes and that is the reason why you need to get this situation treated as soon as possible. Generic antibiotics are recommended during this condition and more often than not, they are sufficient to take care of the condition completely. However, the contagious nature is still present and it can easily impact another person with severe symptoms. The immunity level of the person coming in the contact of bacteria would determine if the condition would spread to him or not.

Therefore, the question can only be answered by considering various other factors.

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects nearly 50% of all men over the age of 40. ED is now well recognized as a consequence of vascular disease (a symptom of vascular disease in the smaller arteries). Any condition or disease which affects either the blood flow to the penis or the nerves to the genital area can cause ED.

Common Causes of Erectile Dysfunction

ED is a complex process involving the brain, hormones, emotions, nerves, muscles and blood vessels. Common causes of ED include:
Cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, heart disease, high blood pressure)
Endocrine and metabolic diseases (diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome)
Neurologic diseases (Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease)
Respiratory diseases (COPD, sleep apnea)
Psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety)
Tobacco use, drug abuse, excessive alcohol intake
Surgeries or injuries that affect the pelvic area or spinal cord
Medications (antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, antiulcer agents)
Erectile Dysfunction and Heart Disease Share the Same Risk Factors

ED is associated with multiple risk factors. It is also known that ED and heart disease share the same risk factors including age, smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, inactive lifestyle, and depression. Despite ED gives a two to three year early warning of a heart attack, the link between ED and the risk of heart disease is being ignored by general practitioners. Clinical studies have suggested that ED doubles the risk of heart disease, a risk equivalent to being a moderate smoker or having an immediate family history of heart disease. ED in type 2 diabetes has been shown to be a better predictor of the risk of heart disease than high blood pressure or high cholesterol. For these reasons, many doctors recommend modification of risk factors and life style changes to ED sufferers.

Chronic Inflammation Contributes to Erectile Dysfunction

Recent studies have shown evidence that chronic inflammation plays an important role in ED:

ED is associated with increased circulating levels of inflammatory markers in men with or without coronary artery disease.
The presence and severity of ED are associated with markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.
Sexual performance score correlates inversely with the circulating levels of inflammatory markers.
Increased oxidative stress is associated with reduced erectile performance.
Inflammation promotes endothelial dysfunction and reduction of nitric oxide (NO), a major physiological stimulus for vascular relaxation including penile vessels.
Enhanced inflammatory state is the common link among ED, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease.
Natural Anti-inflammatory Remedies for Erectile Dysfunction

Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signaling pathway and endothelial function. FlameEz-Vascular is a scientifically formulated natural vascular remedy. It helps remove inflammatory toxins that contribute to vascular dysfunction.

By keeping inflammation under control, FlameEz-Vascular remedy will:

Increase blood flow and oxygen supply*
Protect vascular cells from infection, injury and stress*
Enhance the vascular healing and repair*
Improve vascular function*
Restore the body’s antioxidant defense*
Maintain normal coagulation of blood*
Help restore the balance of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, which contributes to erectile dysfunction.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Because inflammation is responsible for erectile dysfunction, heart attack and stroke, control of inflammation is VITAL for overall health!